No it doesn’t, it only means the end of anonymity.
Anonymity is not the same thing as privacy. Anonymity keeps people from knowing what you’re doing, and it’s a vitally important quality in many settings. But in general we usually want people (at least some people) to know what we’re up to, so long as they respect that knowledge. That’s what privacy is all about. Anonymity is a terribly blunt instrument for protecting privacy, and it’s also fragile. If anonymity was all you have, then you’re in deep trouble when someone manages to defeat it.
New information technologies have clearly made anonymity more difficult, yet it does not follow that we must lose our privacy. Instead, these developments bring into stark relief the need for stronger regulatory controls that compel restraint in the way third parties deal with Personal Information that comes into their possession.
A great example is Facebook’s use of facial recognition. When Facebook members innocently tag one another in photos, Facebook creates biometric templates with which it then automatically processes all photo data (previously anonymous), looking for matches. This is how they can create tag suggestions, but Facebook is notoriously silent on what other applications it has for facial recognition. Now and then we get a hint, with, for example, news of the Facedeals start up last year. Facedeals accesses Facebook’s templates (under conditions that remain unclear) and uses them to spot customers as they enter a store to automatically check them in. It’s classic social technology: kinda sexy, kinda creepy, but clearly in breach of Collection, Use and Disclosure privacy principles.
And indeed, European regulators have found that Facebook’s facial recognition program is unlawful. The chief problem is that Facebook never properly disclosed to members what goes on when they tag one another, and they never sought consent to create biometric templates with which to subsequently identify people throughout their vast image stockpiles. Facebook has been forced to shut down their facial recognition operations in Europe, and they’ve destroyed their historical biometric data.
So privacy regulators in many parts of the world have real teeth. They have proven that re-identification of anonymous data by facial recognition is unlawful, and they have managed to stop a very big and powerful company from doing it.
This is how we should look at the implications of the DNA ‘hacking’. Indeed, Melissa Gymrek from the Whitehead Institute said in an interview: “I think we really need to learn to deal with the fact that we cannot ever make data sets truly anonymous, and that I think the key will be in regulating how we are allowed to use this genetic data to prevent it from being used maliciously.”
Perhaps this episode will bring even more attention to the problem in the USA, and further embolden regulators to enact broader privacy protections there. Perhaps the very extremeness of the DNA hacking does not spell the end of privacy so much as its beginning.