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Yet another anonymity promise broken

In 2016, the Australian government released, for research purposes, an extract of public health insurance data, comprising the 30-year billing history of ten percent of the population, with medical providers and patients purportedly de-identified. Melbourne University researcher Dr Vanessa Teague and her colleagues famously found quite quickly that many of the providers were readily re-identified. The dataset was withdrawn, though not before many hundreds of copies were downloaded from the government website.

The government’s responses to the re-identification work were emphatic but sadly not positive. For one thing, legislation was written to criminalize the re-identification of ostensibly ‘anonymised’ data, which would frustrate work such as Teague’s regardless of its probative value to ongoing privacy engineering (the bill has yet to be passed). For another, the Department of Health insisted that no patient information has been compromised.

It seems less ironic than inevitable that in fact the patients’ anonymity was not to be taken as read. In follow-up work released today, Teague, with Dr Chris Culnane and Dr Ben Rubinstein, have now published a paper showing how patients in that data release may indeed be re-identified.

The ability to re-identify patients from this sort of Open Data release is frankly catastrophic. The release of imperfectly de-identified healthcare data poses real dangers to patients with socially difficult conditions. This is surely well understood. What we now need to contend with is the question of whether Open Data practices like this deliver benefits that justify the privacy risks. That’s going to be a trick debate, for the belief in data science is bordering on religious.

It beggars belief that any government official would promise "anonymity" any more. These promises just cannot be kept.

Re-identification has become a professional sport. Researchers are constantly finding artful new ways to triangulate individuals’ identities, drawing on diverse public information, ranging from genealogical databases to social media photos. But it seems that no matter how many times privacy advocates warn against these dangers, the Open Data juggernaut just rolls on. Concerns are often dismissed as academic, or being trivial compared with the supposed fruits of research conducted on census data, Medicare records and the like.

In "Health Data in an Open World (PDF)" Teague et al warn (not for the first time) that "there is a misconception that [protecting the privacy of individuals in these datasets] is either a solved problem, or an easy problem to solve” (p2). They go on to stress “there is no good solution for publishing sensitive unit-record level data that protects privacy without substantially degrading the usefulness of the data" (p3).

What is the cost-benefit of the research done on these data releases? Statisticians and data scientists say their work informs government policy, but is that really true? Let’s face it. "Evidence based policy" has become quite a joke in Western democracies. There are umpteen really big public interest issues where science and evidence are not influencing policy settings at all. So I am afraid statisticians need to be more modest about the practical importance of their findings when they mount bland “balance” arguments that the benefits outweigh the risks to privacy.

If there is a balance to be struck, then the standard way to make the calculation is a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA). This can formally assess the risk of “de-identified” data being re-identified. And if it can be, a PIA can offer other, layered protections to protect privacy.

So where are all the PIAs?

Open Data is almost a religion. Where is the evidence that evidence-based policy making really works?

I was a scientist and I remain a whole-hearted supporter of publicly funded research. But science must be done with honest appraisal of the risks. It is high time for government officials to revisit their pat assertions of privacy and security. If the public loses confidence in the health system's privacy protection, then some people with socially problematic conditions might simply withdraw from treatment, or hold back vital details when they engage with healthcare providers. In turn, that would clearly damage the purported value of the data being collected and shared.

Big Data-driven research on massive public data sets just seems a little too easy to me. We need to discuss alternatives to massive public releases. One option is to confine research data extracts to secure virtual data rooms, and grant access only to specially authorised researchers. These people would be closely monitored and audited; they would comprise a small set of researchers; their access would be subject to legally enforceable terms & conditions.

There are compromises we all need to make in research on human beings. Let’s be scientific about science-based policy. Let’s rigorously test our faith in Open Data, and let’s please stop taking “de-identification” for granted. It’s really something of a magic spell.

Posted in Big Data, Government, Privacy

Blending security and privacy

An extract from my chapter “Blending the practices of Privacy and Information Security to navigate Contemporary Data Protection Challenges” in the new book “Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Relations as a Challenge for Democracy”, Kloza & Svantesson (editors), Intersentia, 2017.

The relationship between privacy regulators and technologists can seem increasingly fraught. A string of adverse (and sometimes counter intuitive) privacy findings against digital businesses – including the “Right to be Forgotten”, and bans on biometric-powered photo tag suggestions – have left some wondering if privacy and IT are fundamentally at odds. Technologists may be confused by these regulatory developments, and as a result, uncertain about their professional role in privacy management.

Several efforts are underway to improve technologists’ contribution to privacy. Most prominent is the “Privacy by Design” movement (PbD), while a newer discipline of ‘privacy engineering’ is also striving to emerge. A wide gap still separates the worlds of data privacy regulation and systems design. Privacy is still not often framed in a way that engineers can relate to. Instead, PbD’s pat generalisations overlook essential differences between security and privacy, and at the same time, fail to pick up on the substantive common ground, like the ‘Need to Know’ and the principle of Least Privilege.

There appears to be a systematic shortfall in the understanding that technologists and engineers collectively have of information privacy. IT professionals routinely receive privacy training now, yet time and time again, technologists seem to misinterpret basic privacy principles, for example by exploiting personal information found in the ‘public domain’ as if data privacy principles do not apply there, or by creating personal information through Big Data processes, evidently with little or no restraint.

See also ‘Google's wifi misadventure, and the gulf between IT and Privacy’, and ‘What stops Target telling you're pregnant?’.

Engaging technologists in privacy is exacerbated by the many mixed messages which circulate about privacy, its relative importance, and purported social trends towards promiscuity or what journalist Jeff Jarvis calls ‘publicness’. For decades, mass media headlines regularly announce the death of privacy. When US legal scholars Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis developed some of the world’s first privacy jurisprudence in the 1880s, the social fabric was under threat from the new technologies of photography and the telegraph. In time, computers became the big concern. The cover of Newsweek magazine on 27 July 1970 featured a cartoon couple cowered by mainframe computers and communications technology, under the urgent upper case headline, ‘IS PRIVACY DEAD?’.Of course it’s a rhetorical question. And after a hundred years, the answer is still no.

In my new paper published as a chapter of the book “Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Relations as a Challenge for Democracy”, I review how engineers tend collectively to regard privacy and explore how to make privacy more accessible to technologists. As a result, difficult privacy territory like social networking and Big Data may become clearer to non-lawyers, and the transatlantic compliance challenges might yield to data protection designs that are more fundamentally compatible across the digital ethos of Silicon Valley and the privacy activism of Europe.

Privacy is contentious today. There are legitimate debates about whether the information age has brought real changes to privacy norms or not. Regardless, with so much personal information leaking through breaches, accidents, or digital business practices, it’s often said that ‘the genie is out of the bottle’, meaning privacy has become hopeless. Yet in Europe and many jurisdictions, privacy rights attach to Personal Information no matter where it comes from. The threshold for data being counted as Personal Information (or equivalently in the US, ‘Personally Identifiable Information’) is low: any data about a person whose identity is readily apparent constitutes Personal Information in most places, regardless of where or how it originated, and without any reference to who might be said to ‘own’ the data. This is not obvious to engineers without legal training, who have formed a more casual understanding of what ‘private’ means. So it may strike them as paradoxical that the terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ don’t even figure in laws like Australia’s Privacy Act.

Probably the most distracting message for engineers is the well-intended suggestion ‘Privacy is not a Technology Issue’. In 2000, IBM chair Lou Gerstner was one of the first high-profile technologists to isolate privacy as a policy issue. The same trope (that such-and-such ‘is not a technology issue’) is widespread in online discourse. It usually means that multiple disciplines must be brought to bear on certain complex outcomes, such as safety, security or privacy. Unfortunately, engineers can take it to mean that privacy is covered by other departments, such as legal, and has nothing to do with technology at all.

In fact all of our traditional privacy principles are impacted by system design decisions and practices, and are therefore apt for engagement by information technologists. For instance, IT professionals are liable to think of ‘collection’ as a direct activity that solicits Personal Information, whereas under technology neutral privacy principles, indirect collection of identifiable audit logs or database backups should also count.

The most damaging thing that technologists hear about privacy could be the cynical idea that ‘Technology outpaces the Law’. While we should not underestimate how cyberspace will affect society and its many laws borne in earlier ages, in practical day-to-day terms it is the law that challenges technology, not the other way round. The claim that the law cannot keep up with technology is often a rhetorical device used to embolden developers and entrepreneurs. New technologies can make it easier to break old laws, but the legal principles in most cases still stand. If privacy is the fundamental ‘right to be let alone’, then there is nothing intrinsic to technology that supersedes that right. It turns out that technology neutral privacy laws framed over 30 years ago are powerful against very modern trespasses, like wi-fi snooping by Google and over-zealous use of biometrics by Facebook. So technology in general might only outpace policing.

We tend to sugar-coat privacy. Advocates try to reassure harried managers that ‘privacy is good for business’ but the same sort of naïve slogan only undermined the quality movement in the 1990s. In truth, what’s good for business is peculiar to each business. It is plainly the case that some businesses thrive without paying much attention to privacy, or even by mocking it.

Let’s not shrink from the reality that privacy creates tensions with other objectives of complex information systems. Engineering is all about resolving competing requirements. If we’re serious about ‘Privacy by Design’ and ‘Privacy Engineering’, we need to acknowledge the inherent tensions, and equip designers with the tools and the understanding to optimise privacy alongside all the other complexities of modern information systems.

A better appreciation of the nature Personal Information and of technology-neutral data privacy rules should help to demystify European privacy rulings on matters such as facial recognition and the Right to be Forgotten. The treatment of privacy can then be lifted from a defensive compliance exercise, to a properly balanced discussion of what organisations are seeking to get out of the data they have at their disposal.

Posted in Big Data, Biometrics, Privacy, RTBF, Social Media

The last thing privacy needs is new laws

World Wide Web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee has given a speech in London, re-affirming the importance of privacy, but unfortunately he has muddied the waters by casting aspersions on privacy law. Berners-Lee makes a technologist's error, calling for unworkable new privacy mechanisms where none in fact are warranted.

The Telegraph reports Berners-Lee as saying "Some people say privacy is dead – get over it. I don't agree with that. The idea that privacy is dead is hopeless and sad." He highlighted that peoples' participation in potentially beneficial programs like e-health is hampered by a lack of trust, and a sense that spying online is constant.

Of course he's right about that. Yet he seems to underestimate the data privacy protections we already have. Instead he envisions "a world in which I have control of my data. I can sell it to you and we can negotiate a price, but more importantly I will have legal ownership of all the data about me" he said according to The Telegraph.

It's a classic case of being careful what you ask for, in case you get it. What would control over "all data about you" look like? Most of the data about us these days - most of the personal data, aka Personally Identifiable Information (PII) - is collected or created behind our backs, by increasingly sophisticated algorithms. Now, people certainly don't know enough about these processes in general, and in too few cases are they given a proper opportunity to opt in to Big Data processes. Better notice and consent mechanisms are needed for sure, but I don't see that ownership could fix a privacy problem.

What could "ownership" of data even mean? If personal information has been gathered by a business process, or created by clever proprietary algorithms, we get into obvious debates over intellectual property. Look at medical records: in Australia and I suspect elsewhere, it is understood that doctors legally own the medical records about a patient, but that patients have rights to access the contents. The interpretation of medical tests is regarded as the intellectual property of the healthcare professional.

The philosophical and legal quandries are many. With data that is only potentially identifiable, at what point would ownership flip from the data's creator to the individual to whom it applies? What if data applies to more than one person, as in household electricity records, or, more seriously, DNA?

What really matters is preventing the exploitation of people through data about them. Privacy (or, strictly speaking, data protection) is fundamentally about restraint. When an organisation knows you, they should be restrained in what they can do with that knowledge, and not use it against your interests. And thus, in over 100 countries, we see legislated privacy principles which require that organisations only collect the PII they really need for stated purposes, that PII collected for one reason not be re-purposed for others, that people are made reasonably aware of what's going on with their PII, and so on.

Berners-Lee alluded to the privacy threats of Big Data, and he's absolutely right. But I point out that existing privacy law can substantially deal with Big Data. It's not necessary to make new and novel laws about data ownership. When an algorithm works out something about you, such as your risk of developing diabetes, without you having to fill out a questionnaire, then that process has collected PII, albeit indirectly. Technology-neutral privacy laws don't care about the method of collection or creation of PII. Synthetic personal data, collected as it were algorithmically, is treated by the law in the same way as data gathered overtly. An example of this principle is found in the successful European legal action against Facebook for automatic tag suggestions, in which biometric facial recognition algorithms identify people in photos without consent.

Technologists often under-estimate the powers of existing broadly framed privacy laws, doubtless because technology neutrality is not their regular stance. It is perhaps surprising, yet gratifying, that conventional privacy laws treat new technologies like Big Data and the Internet of Things as merely potential new sources of personal information. If brand new algorithms give businesses the power to read the minds of shoppers or social network users, then those businesses are limited in law as to what they can do with that information, just as if they had collected it in person. Which is surely what regular people expect.

Posted in Privacy, e-health, Big Data

The Privacy Shield - another blunt weapon

For many years, American businesses have enjoyed a bit of special treatment under European data privacy laws. The so-called "Safe Harbor" arrangement was negotiated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) so that companies could self-declare broad compliance with data security rules. Normally organisations are not permitted to move Personally Identifiable Information (PII) about Europeans beyond the EU unless the destination has equivalent privacy measures in place. The "Safe Harbor" arrangement was a shortcut around full compliance; as such it was widely derided by privacy advocates outside the USA, and for some years had been questioned by the more activist regulators in Europe. And so it seemed inevitable that the arrangement would be eventually annulled, as it was last October.

With the threat of most personal data flows from Europe into America being halted, US and EU trade officials have worked overtime for five months to strike a new deal. Today (January 29) the US Department of Commerce announced the "EU-US Privacy Shield".

The Privacy Shield is good news for commerce of course. But I hope that in the excitement, American businesses don't lose sight of the broader sweep of privacy law. Even better would be to look beyond compliance, and take the opportunity to rethink privacy, because there is more to it than security and regulatory short cuts.

The Privacy Shield and the earlier Safe Harbor arrangement are really only about satisfying one corner of European data protection laws, namely transborder flows. The transborder data flow rules basically say you must not move personal data from an EU state into a jurisdiction where the privacy protections are weaker than in Europe. Many countries actually have the same sort of laws, including Australia. Normally, as a business, you would have to demonstrate to a European data protection authority (DPA) that your information handling is complying with EU laws, either by situating your data centre in a similar jurisdiction, or by implementing legally binding measures for safeguarding data to EU standards. This is why so many cloud service providers are now building fresh infrastructure in the EU.

But there is more to privacy than security and data centre location. American businesses must not think that just because there is a new get-out-of-jail clause for transborder flows, their privacy obligations are met. Much more important than raw data security are the bedrocks of privacy: Collection Limitation, Usage Limitation, and Transparency.

Basic data privacy laws the world-over require organisations to exercise constraint and openness. That is, Personal Information must not be collected without a real demonstrated need (or without consent); once collected for a primary purpose, Personal Information should not be used for unrelated secondary purposes; and individuals must be given reasonable notice of what personal data is being collected about them, how it is collected, and why. It's worth repeating: general data protection is not unique to Europe; at last count, over 100 countries around the world had passed similar laws; see Prof Graham Greenleaf's Global Tables of Data Privacy Laws and Bills, January 2015.

Over and above Safe Harbor, American businesses have suffered some major privacy missteps. The Privacy Shield isn't going to make overall privacy better by magic.

For instance, Google in 2010 was caught over-collecting personal information through its StreetView cars. It is widely known (and perfectly acceptable) that mapping companies use the positions of unique WiFi routers for their geolocation databases. Google continuously collects WiFi IDs and coordinates via its StreetView cars. The privacy problem here was that some of the StreetView cars were also collecting unencrypted WiFi traffic (for "research purposes") whenever they came across it. In over a dozen countries around the world, Google admitted they had breached local privacy laws by colelcting excessive PII, apologised for the overreach, explained it as inadvertent, and deleted all the WiFi records in question. The matter was settled in just a few months in places like Korea, Japan and Australia. But in the US, where there is no general collection limitation privacy rule, Google has been defending what they did. Absent general data privacy protection, the strongest legislation that seems to apply to the StreetView case is wire tap law, but its application to the Internet is complex. And so the legal action has taken years and years, and it's still not resolved.

I don't know why Google doesn't see that a privacy breach in the rest of the world is a privacy breach in the US, and instead of fighting it, concede that the collection of WiFi traffic was unnecessary and wrong.

Other proof that European privacy law is deeper and broader than the Privacy Shield is found in social networking mishaps. Over the years, many of Facebook's business practices for instance have been found unlawful in the EU. Recently there was the final ruling against "Find Friends", which uploads the contact details of third parties without their consent. Before that there was the long running dispute over biometric photo tagging. When Facebook generates tag suggestions, what they're doing is running facial recognition algorithms over photos in their vast store of albums, without the consent of the people in those photos. Identifying otherwise anonymous people, without consent (and without restraint as to what might be done next with that new PII), seems to be an unlawful under the Collection Limitation and Usage Limitation principles.

In 2012, Facebook was required to shut down their photo tagging in Europe. They have been trying to re-introduce it ever since. Whether they are successful or not will have nothing to do with the "Privacy Shield".

The Privacy Shield comes into a troubled trans-Atlantic privacy environment. Whether or not the new EU-US arrangement fares better than the Safe Harbor remains to be seen. But in any case, since the Privacy Shield really aims to free up business access to data, sadly it's unlikely to do much good for true privacy.

The examples cited here are special cases of the collision of Big Data with data privacy, which is one of my special interest areas at Constellation Research. See for example "Big Privacy" Rises to the Challenges of Big Data.

Posted in Social Media, Privacy, Facebook, Biometrics, Big Data, Social Networking

My opening remarks on privacy at Constellation Connected Enterprise 2015

A big part of my research agenda in the Digital Safety theme at Constellation is privacy. And what a vexed topic it is! It's hard to even know how to talk about privacy. For many years, folks have covered privacy in more or less academic terms, drawing on sociology, politics and pop psychology, joining privacy to human rights, and crafting new various legal models.

Meanwhile the data breaches get worse, and most businesses have just bumped along.

When you think about it, it’s obvious really: there’s no such thing as perfect privacy. The real question is not about ‘fundamental human rights’ versus business, but rather, how can we optimise a swarm of competing interests around the value of information?

Privacy is emerging as one of the most critical and strategic of our information assets. If we treat privacy as an asset, instead of a burden, businesses can start to cut through this tough topic.

But here’s an urgent issue. A recent regulatory development means privacy may just stop a lot of business getting done. It's the European Court of Justice decision to shut down the US-EU Safe Harbor arrangement.

The privacy Safe Harbor was a work-around negotiated by the Federal Trade Commission, allowing companies to send personal data from Europe into the US.

But the Safe Harbor is no more. It's been ruled unlawful. So it’s a big, big problem for European operations, many multinationals, and especially US cloud service providers.

At Constellation we've researched cloud geography and previously identified competitive opportunities for service providers to differentiate and compete on privacy. But now this is an urgent issue.

It's time American businesses stopped getting caught out by global privacy rulings. There shouldn't be too many surprises here, if you understand what data protection means internationally. Even the infamous "Right To Be Forgotten" ruling on Google’s search engine – which strikes so many technologists as counter intuitive – was a rational and even predictable outcome of decades old data privacy law.

The leading edge of privacy is all about Big Data. And we aint seen nothin yet!

Look at artificial intelligence, Watson Health, intelligent personal assistants, hackable cars, and the Internet of Everything where everything is instrumented, and you see information assets multiplying exponentially. Privacy is actually just one part of this. It’s another dimension of information, one that can add value, but not in a neat linear way. The interplay of privacy, utility, usability, efficiency, efficacy, security, scalability and so on is incredibly complex.

The broader issue is Digital Safety: safety for your customers, and safety for your business.

Posted in Privacy, Innovation, Cloud, Big Data

An identity glut on the Internet of Things

The identerati sometimes refer to the challenge of “binding carbon to silicon”. That’s a poetic way of describing how the field of Identity and Access Management (IDAM) is concerned with associating carbon-based life forms (as geeks fondly refer to people) with computers (or silicon chips).

To securely bind users’ identities or attributes to their computerised activities is indeed a technical challenge. In most conventional IDAM systems, there is only circumstantial evidence of who did what and when, in the form of access logs and audit trails, most of which can be tampered with or counterfeited by a sufficiently determined fraudster. To create a lasting, tamper-resistant impression of what people do online requires some sophisticated technology (in particular, digital signatures created using hardware-based cryptography).

On the other hand, working out looser associations between people and computers is the stock-in-trade of social networking operators and Big Data analysts. So many signals are emitted as a side effect of routine information processing today that even the shyest of users may be uncovered by third parties with sufficient analytics know-how and access to data.

So privacy is in peril. For the past two years, big data breaches have only got bigger: witness the losses at Target (110 million), EBay (145 million), Home Depot (109 million records) and JPMorgan Chase (83 million) to name a few. Breaches have got deeper, too. Most notably, in June 2015 the U.S. federal government’s Office of Personnel Management (OPM) revealed it had been hacked, with the loss of detailed background profiles on 15 million past and present employees.

I see a terrible systemic weakness in the standard practice of information security. Look at the OPM breach: what was going on that led to application forms for employees dating back 15 years remaining in a database accessible from the Internet? What was the real need for this availability? Instead of relying on firewalls and access policies to protect valuable data from attack, enterprises need to review which data needs to be online at all.

We urgently need to reduce the exposed attack surface of our information assets. But in the information age, the default has become to make data as available as possible. This liberality is driven both by the convenience of having all possible data on hand, just in case in it might be handy one day, and by the plummeting cost of mass storage. But it's also the result of a technocratic culture that knows "knowledge is power," and gorges on data.

In communications theory, Metcalfe’s Law states that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of devices that are connected. This is an objective mathematical reality, but technocrats have transformed it into a moral imperative. Many think it axiomatic that good things come automatically from inter-connection and information sharing; that is, the more connection the better. Openness is an unexamined rallying call for both technology and society. “Publicness” advocate Jeff Jarvis wrote (admittedly provocatively) that: “The more public society is, the safer it is”. And so a sort of forced promiscuity is shaping up as the norm on the Internet of Things. We can call it "superconnectivity", with a nod to the special state of matter where electrical resistance drops to zero.

In thinking about privacy on the IoT, a key question is this: how much of the data emitted from Internet-enabled devices will actually be personal data? If great care is not taken in the design of these systems, the unfortunate answer will be most of it.

Steve Wilson CISID15 Rationing Identity in IoT (0 4) HANDOUTS  Data flows in Internet of Cars
Steve Wilson CISID15 Rationing Identity in IoT (0 4 1) HANDOUTS  Imposing order IoT PII flows

My latest investigation into IoT privacy uses the example of the Internet connected motor car. "Rationing Identity on the Internet of Things" will be released soon by Constellation Research.

And don't forget Constellation's annual innovation summit, Connected Enterprise at Half Moon Bay outside San Francisco, November 4th-6th. Early bird registration closes soon.

Posted in Security, Privacy, Cloud, Big Data

A letter on Free Speech and the Right to be Forgotten

An unpublished letter to New Yorker magazine, August 2015.

Kelefa Sanneh ("The Hell You Say", Aug 10 & 17) poses a question close to the heart of society’s analog-to-digital conversion: What is speech?

Internet policy makers worldwide are struggling with a recent European Court of Justice decision which grants some rights to individuals to have search engines like Google block results that are inaccurate, irrelevant or out of date. Colloquially known as the "Right To Be Forgotten" (RTBF), the ruling has raised the ire of many Americans in particular, who typically frame it as yet another attack on free speech. Better defined as a right to be de-listed, RTBF makes search providers consider the impact on individuals of search algorithms, alongside their commercial interests. For there should be no doubt – search is very big business. Google and its competitors use search to get to know people, so they can sell better advertising.

Search results are categorically not the sort of text which contributes to "democratic deliberation". Free speech may be many things but surely not the mechanical by-products of advertising processes. To protect search results as such mocks the First Amendment.

End.

Some of my other RTBF thoughts:

Posted in Privacy, Internet, Culture, Big Data, RTBF

Good, better, BlackBerry

In the latest course of a 15 month security feast, BlackBerry has announced it is acquiring mobile device management (MDM) provider Good Technology. The deal is said to be definitive, for US$425 million in cash.

As BlackBerry boldly re-positions itself as a managed service play in the Internet of Things, adding an established MDM capability to its portfolio will bolster its claim -- which still surprises many -- to be handset neutral. But the Good buy is much more than that. It has to be seen in the context of John Chen's drive for cross-sector security and privacy infrastructure for the IoT.

As I reported from the recent BlackBerry Security Summit in New York, the company has knitted together a comprehensive IoT security fabric. Look at how they paint their security platform:

BBY Security Platform In Action

And see how Good will slip neatly into the Platform Services column. It's the latest in what is now a $575 million investment in non-organic security growth (following purchases of Secusmart, Watchdox, Movirtu and Athoc).

According to BlackBerry,

    • Good will bring complementary capabilities and technologies to BlackBerry, including secure applications and containerization that protects end user privacy. With Good, BlackBerry will expand its ability to offer cross-platform EMM solutions that are critical in a world with varying deployment models such as bring-your-own-device (BYOD); corporate owned, personally enabled (COPE); as well as environments with multiple user interfaces and operating systems. Good has expertise in multi-OS management with 64 percent of activations from iOS devices, followed by a broad Android and Windows customer base.(1) This experience combined with BlackBerry’s strength in BlackBerry 10 and Android management – including Samsung KNOX-enabled devices – will provide customers with increased choice for securely deploying any leading operating system in their organization.

MyPOV

The strategic acquisition of Good Technology will also give the Identity-as-a-Service sector a big kick. IDaaS is become a crowded space with at least ten vendors (CA, Centrify, IBM, Microsoft, Okta, OneLogin, Ping, Salepoint, Salesforce, VMware) competing strongly around a pretty well settled set of features and functions. BlackBerry themselves launched an IDaaS a few months ago. At the Security Summit, I asked their COO Marty Beard what is going to distinguishe their offering in such a tight market, and he said, simply, mobility. Presto!

But IDaaS is set to pivot. We all know that mobility is now the locus of security , and we've seen VMware parlay its AirWatch investment into a competitive new cloud identity service. This must be more than a catch-up play with so many entrenched IDaaS vendors.

Here's the thing. I foresee identity actually disappearing from the user experience, which more and more will just be about the apps. I discussed this development in a really fun "Identity Innovators" video interview recorded with Ping at the recent Cloud Identity Summit. For identity to become seamless with the mobile application UX, we need two things. Firstly, federation protocols so that different pieces of software can hand over attributes and authentication signals to one another, and these are all in place now. But secondly we also need fully automated mobile device management as a service, and that's where Good truly fits with the growing BlackBerry platform.

Now stay tuned for new research coming soon via Constellation on the Internet of Things, identity, privacy and software reliability.

See also The State of Identity Management in 2015.

Posted in Security, Identity, Federated Identity, Constellation Research, Big Data

BlackBerry Security Summit 2015

On July 23, BlackBerry hosted its second annual Security Summit, once again in New York City. As with last year’s event, this was a relatively intimate gathering of analysts and IT journalists, brought together for the lowdown on BlackBerry’s security and privacy vision.

By his own account, CEO John Chen has met plenty of scepticism over his diverse and, some say, chaotic product and services portfolio. And yet it’s beginning to make sense. There is a strong credible thread running through Chen’s initiatives. It all has to do with the Internet of Things.

Disclosure: I traveled to the Blackberry Security Summit as a guest of Blackberry, which covered my transport and accommodation.

The Growth Continues

In 2014, John Chen opened the show with the announcement he was buying the German voice encryption firm Secusmart. That acquisition appears to have gone well for all concerned; they say nobody has left the new organisation in the 12 months since. News of BlackBerry’s latest purchase - of crisis communications platform AtHoc - broke a few days before this year’s Summit, and it was only the most recent addition to the family. In the past 12 months, BlackBerry has been busy spending $150M on inorganic growth, picking up:

  • Secusmart - voice & message encryption (announced at the inaugural Security Summit 2014)
  • Movirtu - innovative virtual SIM solutions for holding multiple cell phone numbers on one chip
  • Watchdox - document security and rights management, for “data centric privacy”, and
  • Athoc (announced but not yet complete; see more details below).

    Chen has also overseen an additional $100M expenditure in the same timeframe on organic security expansion (over and above baseline product development). Amongst other things BlackBerry has:

  • "rekindled" Certicom, a specialist cryptography outfit acquired back in 2009 for its unique IP in elliptic curve encryption, and spun out a a new managed PKI service.
  • And it has created its own Enterprise Identity-as-a-Service (IDaas) solution. From what I saw at the Summit, BlackBerry is playing catch-up in cloud based IDAM but they do have an edge in mobility over the specialist identity vendors in what is now a crowded identity services marketplace.

    The Growth Explained - Secure Mobile Communications

    Executives from different business units and different technology horizontals all organised their presentations around what is now a comprehensive security product and services matrix. It looks like this (before adding AtHoc):

    BBY Security Platform In Action

    BlackBerry is striving to lead in Secure Mobile Communications. In that context the highlights of the Security Summit for mine were as follows.

    The Internet of Things

    BlackBerry’s special play is in the Internet of Things. It’s the consistent theme that runs through all their security investments, because as COO Marty Beard says, IoT involves a lot more than machine-to-machine communications. It’s more about how to extract meaningful data from unbelievable numbers of devices, with security and privacy. That is, IoT for BlackBerry is really a security-as-a-service play.

    Chief Security Officer David Kleidermacher repeatedly stressed the looming challenge of “how to patch and upgrade devices at scale”.

      • MyPOV: Functional upgrades for smart devices will of course be part and parcel of IoT, but at the same time, we need to work much harder to significantly reduce the need for reactive security patches. I foresee an angry consumer revolt if things that never were computers start to behave and fail like computers. A radically higher standard of quality and reliability is required. Just look at the Jeep Uconnect debacle, where it appears Chrysler eventually thought better of foisting a patch on car owners and instead opted for a much more expensive vehicle recall. It was BlackBerry’s commitment to ultra high reliability software that really caught my attention at the 2014 Security Summit, and it convinces me they grasp what’s going to be required to make ubiquitous computing properly seamless.

    Refreshingly, COO Beard preferred to talk about economic value of the IoT, rather than the bazillions of devices we are all getting a little jaded about. He said the IoT would bring about $4 trillion of required technology within a decade, and that the global economic impact could be $11 trillion.

    BlackBerry’s real time operating system QNX is in 50 million cars today.

    AtHoc

    AtHoc is a secure crisis communications service, with its roots in the first responder environment. It’s used by three million U.S. government workers today, and the company is now pushing into healthcare.

    Founder and CEO Guy Miasnik explained that emergency communications involves more than just outbound alerts to people dealing with disasters. Critical to crisis management is the secure inbound collection of info from remote users. AtHoc is also not just about data transmission (as important as that is) but it works also at the application layer, enabling sophisticated workflow management. This allows procedures for example to be defined for certain events, guiding sets of users and devices through expected responses, escalating issues if things don’t get done as expected.

    “CHACE”

    We heard more about BlackBerry’s collaboration with Oxford University on the Centre for High Assurance Computing Excellence, first announced in April at the RSA Conference. CHACE is concerned with a range of fundamental topics, including formal methods for verifying program correctness (an objective that resonates with BlackBerry’s secure operating system division QNX) and new security certification methodologies, with technical approaches based on the Common Criteria of ISO 15408 but with more agile administration to reduce that standard’s overhead and infamous rigidity.

    CSO Kleidermacher announced that CHACE will work with the Diabetes Technology Society on a new healthcare security standards initiative. The need for improved medical device security was brought home vividly by an enthralling live demonstration of hacking a hospital drug infusion pump. These vulnerabilities have been exposed before at hacker conferences but BlackBerry’s demo was especially clear and informative, and crafted for a non-technical executive audience.

      • MyPOV: The message needs to be broadcast loud and clear: there are life-critical machines in widespread use, built on commercial computing platforms, without any careful thought for security. It’s a shameful and intolerable situation.

    Privacy

    I was impressed by BlackBerry’s privacy line. It's broader and more sophisticated than most security companies, going way beyond the obvious matters of encryption and VPNs. In particular, the firm champions identity plurality. For instance, WorkLife by BlackBerry, powered by Movirtu technology, realizes multiple identities on a single phone. BlackBerry is promoting this capability in the health sector especially, where there is rarely a clean separation of work and life for professionals. Chen said he wants to “separate work and private life”.

    The health sector in general is one of the company’s two biggest business development priorities (the other being automotive). In addition to sophisticated telephony like virtual SIMs, they plan to extend extend AtHoc into healthcare messaging, and have tasked the CHACE think-tank with medical device security. These actions complement BlackBerry’s fine words about privacy.

    Conclusion

    So BlackBerry’s acquisition plan has gelled. It now has perhaps the best secure real time OS for smart devices, a hardened device-independent Mobile Device Management backbone, new data-centric privacy and rights management technology, remote certificate management, and multi-layered emergency communications services that can be diffused into mission-critical rules-based e-health settings and, eventually, automated M2M messaging. It’s a powerful portfolio that makes strong sense in the Internet of Things.

    BlackBerry says IoT is 'much more than device-to-device'. It’s more important to be able to manage secure data being ejected from ubiquitous devices in enormous volumes, and to service those things – and their users – seamlessly. For BlackBerry, the Internet of Things is really all about the service.

    Posted in Software engineering, Security, Privacy, PKI, e-health, Constellation Research, Cloud, Big Data

  • Apply for a SuperNova Award - Recognising leaders in digital business

    Every year the Constellation SuperNova Awards recognise eight individuals for their leadership in digital business. Nominate yourself or someone you know by August 7, 2015.

    The SuperNova Awards honour leaders that demonstrate excellence in the application and adoption of new and emerging technologies. In its fifth year, the SuperNova Awards program will recognise eight individuals who demonstrate true leadership in digital business through their application of new and emerging technologies. Constellation Research is searching for leaders and corporate teams who have innovatively applied disruptive technolgies to their businesses, to adapt to the rapidly-changing digital business environment. Special emphasis will be given to projects that seek to redefine how the enterprise uses technology on a large scale.

    We’re searching for the boldest, most transformative technology projects out there. Apply for a SuperNova Award by filling out the application here: http://www.constellationr.com/node/3137/apply

    SuperNova Award Categories


    • Consumerization of IT & The New C-Suite - The Enterprise embraces consumer tech, and perfects it.
    • Data to Decisions - Using data to make informed business decisions.
    • Digital Marketing Transformation - Put away that megaphone. Marketing in the digital age requires a new approach.
    • Future of Work - The processes and technologies addressing the rapidly shifting work paradigm.
    • Matrix Commerce - Commerce responds to changing realities from the supply chain to the storefront.
    • Next Generation Customer Experience - Customers in the digital age demand seamless service throughout all lifecycle stages and across all channels.
    • Safety and Privacy - Not 'security'. Safety and Privacy is the art and science of the art and science of protecting information assets, including your most important assets: your people.
    • Technology Optimization & Innovation - Innovative methods to balance innovation and budget requirements.

    Five reasons to apply for a SuperNova Award


    • Exposure to the SuperNova Award judges, comprised of the top influencers in enterprise technology
    • Case study highlighting the achievements of the winners written by Constellation analysts
    • Complimentary admission to the SuperNova Award Gala Dinner and Constellation's Connected Enterprise for all finalists November 4-6, 2015 (NB: lodging and travel not included)
    • One year unlimited access to Constellation's research library
    • Winners featured on Constellation's blog and weekly newsletter.

    Learn more about the SuperNova Awards.

    What to expect when applying for a SuperNova Award. Tips and sample application.

    Posted in Constellation Research, Cloud, Big Data